Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)
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Garden sage is a perennial subshrub with lanciform or ovate leaves growing on 50-80 cm tall, arborescent shoots. The edges of leaves are serrated and both their adaxial and abaxial surfaces are tomentose. The veins depressed on the adaxial surfaces of the leaves form characteristic, dense, net-like patterns which make it considerably easier to recognize the plant. Its labiate, blue, white, or pink flowers bloom from May until July and form pseudo-verticillate pseudo-spikes. Its fruits are sets of four acorns sitting in permanent calyxes.
Because of their anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effects, watery and alcoholic extracts of garden sage and its tea are used to treat inflammations of the gums, throat, or the mucous membrane in the mouth. Garden sage tea is also used in baths to treat haemorrhoids, while an alcoholic extract of this plant is used to paint the pharynx. Consuming its cold watery extract is recommended for excess sweating due to hyperthyroidism. Its alcoholic extract was used as a rubbing agent, while its leaves, after being made into powder, were used to make tooth powders and creams. Fresh sage infusions were used to cleanse swellings and abscesses. Cooked in milk, it was administered to treat Spanish flu and whooping cough. Tea to treat asthma was also made from sage with mullein and ribwort plantain.
The leaves of garden sage are used by the cosmetics industry as a skin conditioning, cleansing, antiperspirant, antidandruff, skin protecting, tightening, and deodorising, as well as strengthening, bactericidal, and soothing substance. Its volatile oil is a covering substance and strengthening agent, while a distillate made from its leaves serves as a skin conditioning substance. Sage exerts its beneficent effects on both normal and sensitive skin and its use is particularly advantageous in products for fungal infections.
Leaves (Salviae folium)
- Volatile oil: 1,0-2,5 %
- Tannins: 3-8 %
- Bitter principles
Volatile oil (Aetheroleum salviae)
- Volatile oil components: alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, cineole, camphor, pinene